Correction of confounding factors

We recommend maintaining perioperative normothermia because it reduces blood loss and transfusion requirements. 1B

We recommend that pH correction should be pursued during treatment of acidotic coagulopathy, although pH correction alone cannot immediately correct acidosisinduced coagulopathy. 1C

We recommend that rFVIIa should only be considered alongside pH correction. 1C

We recommend that calcium should be administered during massive transfusion if calcium concentration is low, to preserve normocalcaemia (>0.9 mmol l-1). 1B

We suggest that endovascular embolisation is a well tolerated alternative to open surgical intervention after failed endoscopic treatment for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). 2C

We suggest super-selective embolisation as primary therapy for treatment of angiogram positive lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding. 2C

We suggest embolisation as first-line therapy for arterial complications in pancreatitis. 2C